Country-level bilateral Science and Technology Cooperation Agreements (S&T Agreement) between the EU have been established with Morocco (2005), Egypt (2008), Jordan (2010) and Algeria (2013).
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) seeks to build effective partnerships between the EU and its Southern Neighbours, framed by the values of democracy, the rule of law and respect of human rights.
While the ENP frames the bilateral policy of the EU with each Neighbourhood country, it also prioritises the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) to channel regional cooperation efforts. The UfM provides a platform for multilateral cooperation initiatives with Southern Neighbours among other UfM Member Countries. It promotes economic integration among Member Countries in areas that include the business environment, energy and climate action, water and environment, urban development, higher education and research.
The Southern Neighbourhood countries included in a “Roadmap for EU – Southern Neigbourhood Science and Technology Cooperation” (2018) are Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine and Syria. Israel and Tunisia are not included as they have been associated to Horizon 2020 since 1 January 2014 and 1 January 2016 respectively.