African economies made impressive gains in the first decade of the twenty-first century. These gains changed in demonstrable ways the negative narrative that characterized the continent in the last decades of the twentieth century. Many observers note, however, that the recent positive growth performance does not result in the significant transformation of Africa’s economies. They point out that, for growth to result in economic trans-formation, it must be knowledge-based and innovation-driven, based on evidence from advanced economies and newly industrialized countries. Knowledge-based and innovation-driven economies are economies with sustained investments in science, technology and innovation (STI), and that have the capacity to transform inventions into innovations in order to drive national competitiveness and improve social welfare. Such countries have economic and STI policies integrated as coherent national policies and strategies; their decisions on STI are guided by carefully drafted country STI readiness and assessment reports (including, for example, country STI profiles).
Nigeria National Science, Technology and Innovation System: page 94 ff.
Kenya National Science, Technology and Innovation System: page 137 ff.