The Western Balkans consists of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro , Kosovo * and Serbia. All have a perspective to accede to the European Union and hence are also called 'enlargement countries'. As of 2016 the innovation dimension was added to the structural reform agenda of the national Economic Reform Programmes.
*The designation of Kosovo is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.
In 2021, The European Union developed with the Western Balkans a forward-looking Agenda on Innovation, Research, Education, Culture, Youth and Sport.